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Easy Essays
Peter's Biography
Peter's Legacy

A Collection of Peter Maurin's Easy Essays
Contents. . .

Looking for Leadership

Catholic Worker Philosophy

Historical Background

Legalized Usury

Works of Mercy

Criticism and Marxism

Communitarianism

Agrarianism

Farming Communes

What They Say They Believe

Disarmament


No Recourse

 
1. Politicians used to say:
     "We make prosperity
     through our wise policies."

2.  Business men used to say:
     "We make prosperity
     through our private enterprise."

3.  The workers did not have anything to say
     about the matter;

4.  They were either put to work
     or thrown out of employment

5.  And when unemployment came
     the workers
     had no recourse
     against the professed makers
     of prosperity,
     politicians and business men.


[Contents]
Politics Is Politics

1. A politician is an artist
      in the art of following the wind
      of  public opinion.
2. He who follows the wind
      of public opinion
      does not follow
      his own judgement.
3. And he who does not follow 
      his own judgement
      cannot lead people
      out of the beaten path.
4. He is like the tail of a dog
      that tries to lead the head.
5. When people stand behind their president
      and their president
      stands behind them
      they and their president
      go around in a circle
      getting nowhere.


[Contents]
Classes And Clashes

1. Business men say
     that because everybody is selfish
     business must necessarily
     be based on selfishness.

2. But when business
     is based on selfishness
     everbody is busy
     becoming more selfish.

3. And when everybody is busy
     becoming more selfish,
     you have classes and clashes.

4. Business men create problems;
     they do not solve them.


[Contents]
Teachers Of Subjects

1. Our business managers
     don't know how to manage
     the things they try to manage,
     because they don't understand
     the things they try to manage.

2. So they turn to college professors
     in the hope of understanding
     the things they try to manage.

3. But college professors
     do not profess anything,
     they only teach subjects.

4. As teachers of subjects,
     college professors
     may enable people
     to master subjects,
     but mastering subjects
     has never enabled anyone
     to master situations.


[Contents]
The Age Of Treason

1. Pope Pius IX and Cardinal Newman
     consider liberalism,
     whether it be
     religious, philosophical, or economic,
     the greatest error of the nineteenth century.

2. Modern liberalism
     is the logical sequence
     of the so-called age of Enlightenment-
     the age of Voltaire, Rousseau, Thomas Paine-
     sometimes called the Age of Reason
     in opposition to the Age of Faith.

3. By sponsoring nationalism and capitalism
     modern liberals
     have given up the search for truth
     and have become paid propagandists.

4. Modern liberals have ceased to appeal to reason,
     and have chosen to appeal to prejudice.

5. So the Age of Reason
     has become the age of Treason,
     as Julien Benda points out
     in his book entitled:
     "The treason of the Intellectuals".


[Contents]
Church And State

1. Modern Society
     believes in the separation
     of Church and State.

2. But the Jews
     did not believe in it.

3. The Greeks
     did not believe in it.

4. The Romans
     did not believe in it.

5. The Mediaevals
     did not believe in it.

6. The Puritians
     did not believe in it.

7. Modern society
     has separated Church and State
     but it did not separate the State
     from business.

8. The State is no longer
     a Church's State.

9. The State is now
     a Business Men's State.


[Contents]
Getting Stuck

1. Ethical teachers seem to wish
     every worker to be a stockholder
     and every stockhoulder to be a worker.

2. As a stockholder
     the worker wants bigger dividends.

3. As a worker
     he wants bigger wages.

4. And the stock promoters
     stock him with stocks
     till he gets stuck.

5. And labor organizers
     promise him better conditions
     and exact bigger dues.

6. And the worker
     finds himself exploited
     both by stock promoters
     and labor organizers.


[Contents]
A Modern Pest

1. "What ails modern society
     is separation
     of the spiritual
     from the material",
     says Glenn Frank.

2. "Secularism is a pest",
     says Pius XI.

3. When religion
     has nothing to do
     with education,
     education,
     education is only
     information;
     plenty of facts,
     but no understanding.

4. When religion
     has nothing to do
     with politics,
     politics is only
     factionalism:
     "Let's turn the rascals out
     so our good friends
     can get in."

5. When religion 
     has nothing to do
     with business,
     business is only 
     commercialism:
     "Let's get what we can
     while the getting is good."


[Contents]
Shouting With Rotarians

1. The modern man looks for thought
     so that he can have light,
     and he is unable to find it
     in our modern schools.

2. According to Professor Meiklejohn,
     "Students go school
     not to be directed
     but to become business men."

3. According to Glenn Frank,
     President of the University of Wisconsin,
     "Schools reflect the environment,
     they do not create it."

4. Which explains why
     shortly after their graduation,
     school graduates could be heard
     shouting with Rotarians:
     "Service for profits",
     "Time is money",
     "Keep Smiling",
     "Business is business",
     "How are you making out?"
     "The law of supply and demand",
     "Competition is the life of trade",
     "Your dollar is your best friend".


[Contents]
Christianity Untried

1. Chesterton says:
    "The Christian ideal
    has not been tried
    and found wanting.
2. It has been found difficult
    and left untried."
3. Christianity has not been tried
    because people thought
    it was impractical.
4. And men have tried everything
    except Christianity.
5. And everything
    that men have tried
    has failed.
	 


[Contents]
The Duty of Hospitality

1. People who are in need 
    and are not afraid to beg 
    give to people not in need 
    the occasion to do good 
    for goodness'sake.
2. Modern society calls the beggar 
    bum and panhandler 
    and gives him the bum's rush. 
    But the Greeks used to say 
    that people in need
    are the ambassadors of the gods.
3. Although you may be called 
    bums and panhandlers 
    you are in fact
    the Ambassadors of God.
4. As God's Ambassadors 
    you should be given food, 
    clothing and shelter 
    by those who are able to give it.
5. Mahometan teachers tell us 
    that God commands hospitality, 
    and hospitality is still practiced 
    in Mahometan countries.
6. But the duty of hospitality 
    is neither taught nor practiced 
    in Christian countries.
	 


[Contents]
Feeding the Poor at a Sacrifice

1. In the first centuries
    of Christianity
    the hungry were fed
    at a personal sacrifice,
    the naked were clothed
    at a personal sacrifice,
    the homeless were sheltered
    at personal sacrifice.
2. And because the poor
    were fed, clothed and sheltered
    at a personal sacrifice,
    the pagans used to say
    about the Christians
    "See how they love each other."
3. In our own day
    the poor are no longer
    fed, clothed, sheltered
    at a personal sacrifice,
    but at the expense
    of the taxpayers.
4. And because the poor
    are no longer
    fed, clothed and sheltered
    the pagans say about the Christians
    "See how they pass the buck."


[Contents]
A Radical Change

1. The order of the day
    is to talk about the social order. 
2. Conservatives would like
    to keep it from changing
    but they don't know how.
3. Liberals try to patch it
    and call it a New Deal.
4. Socialists want a change, 
    but a gradual change.
5. Communists want a change,
    an immediate change,
    but a Socialist change.
6. Communists in Russia
    do not build Communism,
    they build Socialism.
7. Communists want to pass
    from capitalism to Socialism
    and from Socialism to Communism.
8. I want a change,
    and a radical change.
9. I want a change
    from an acquisitive society
    to a functional society,
    from a society of go-getters
    to a society of go-givers.


[Contents]
Thirteenth-Century France

1. Henry Adams, who had in his ancestry
     two Presidents of the United States,
     says in his autobiography
     that one cannot get an education
     in modern America.

2. And the reason he gives is,
     that there is
     no unity of thought
     in modern America.

3. So he went to England
     and found that modern England
     is too much like America.

4. So he went to France
     and found that modern France
     is too much like England and America.

5. But in France, Henry Adams found
     that one could get an education
     in thirteenth-century France.

6. And he wrote a book concerning
     the Cathedral of Chartes
     and the Mount Saint-Michel,
     where he points out
     that there was unity of thought
     in thirteenth-century France.


[Contents]
Guild System - 1200 A.D.

1. In 1200 A.D.
     there was no Capitalist System,
     there was the Guild System.

2. The doctrine of the Guilds
     was the doctrine
     of the Common Good.

3. The people used to say
     as they do now:
     "What can I do for you?"
     but they meant what they said.
  
4. Now they say one thing
     and they mean another.

5. They did not look for markets,
     they let markets
     look for them.


[Contents]
Roman Law - 1300 A.D.

1. In 1300 A.D.
     the Roman Law
     took place
     of the Canon Law.

2. The Roman Law
     enables rich men
     to live among the poor men.

3. The Canon Law
     enables good men
     to live among bad men.

4. "Divide to rule"
     became the slogan
     of the politicians.

5. In his book "The Prince",
     Machiavelli
     taught them how.

6. So politics
     ceased to be policy
     and became 
     just politics.


[Contents]
Middle-Man - 1400 A.D.

1. Around 1400 A.D.
     appears the middle-man.

2. He offers to buy the goods
     and to find a market.

3. The guild's man
     thinks about the money
     offered for his goods
     and forgets the Common Good.

4. And the middle-man
     is not interested
     in selling useful goods
     but in making money
     on any kind of goods.

5. And the consumer 
     never meets the producer
     and the producer
     ceases to think
     in terms of service
     and begins to think
     in terms of profits.


[Contents]
Calvinism - 1530 A.D.

1. American Puritanism
     was to a great extent
     an outgrowth of Calvinism.

2. Andre' Siegfried says:
     "The Puritan
     is proud to be rich.

3. "If he makes money,
     he likes to tell himself
     that Divine Providence
     sends it to him.

4. "His wealth itself
     becomes in his eyes
     as well as the eyes of others
     a mark of God's blessing.

5. "A time comes
     when he no longer knows
     if he acts for duty's sake
     or for interest's sake.

6. "It becomes difficult
     in those conditions
     to make a demarcation
     between religious aspiration
     and the pursuit of wealth."


[Contents]
Banker - 1600 A.D.

1. Before John Calvin
     people were not allowed
     to lend money at interest.

2. John Calvin decided
     to legalize
     money-lending at interest
     in spite of the teachings
     of the Prophets of Israel
     and the Fathers of the Church.

3. Protestant countries
     tried to keep up with John Calvin
     and money-lending at interest
     became the general practice.

4. And money ceased to be
     a means of exchange
     and began to be
     a means to make money.

5. So people lent money on time
     and started to think of time
     in terms of money
     and said to each other:
     "Time is money."


[Contents]
Manufacturer - 1700 A.D.

1. With the discovery of steam
     the factory system
     made its appearance.
  
2. To take drudgery out of the home
     was suppose to be
     the aim of the manufacturer.

3. So the guildsman
     left his shop
     and went to the factory.

4. But the profit-making manufacturer
     found it more profitable
     to employ women
     than to employ men.

5. So the women left the home
     and went to the factory.

6. Soon the children
     followed the women
     into the factory.

7. So the men have to stay at home
     while women and children
     work in the factory.


[Contents]
Economist - 1800 A.D.

1. The Laissez-Faire Economists
     told everybody
     that competition
     is the life of trade
     and that it is a case
     of survival of the fittest.

2. So since 1800
     looking for markets
     has engaged men's activities.

3. And since trade follows the flag
     industral nations
     have also become
     imperialst nations.

4. The fight for markets
     between two industrial nations,
     England and Germany,
     was the main cause 
     of the World War.


[Contents]
World War - 1914

1. As President Wilson said,
     the World War
     was a commercial war.

2. But a commercial war
     had to be idealized,
     so it was called
     a War for Democracy.

3. But the War for Democracy
     did not bring Democracy:
     it brought
     Bolshevism in Russia,
     Fascism in Italy,
     Nazism in Germany.


[Contents]
World Depression - 1929

1. After the World War
     people tried to believe
     that a New Era
     had dawned upon the world.

2. People thought
     that they had found a solution
     to the problem
     of mass-distribution.

3. People thought
     that the time had come
     for the two-car garage,
     a chicken in every pot,
     and a sign "To Let"
     in front of every poor-house.

4. And everybody
     wanted to cash in
     on the future prosperity.

5. So stock promoters got busy
     and stocked people with stocks
     till they got stuck.


[Contents]
God And Mammon

1. Christ says: "The dollar you have
     is the dollar you give."

2. The Banker says: "The dollar you have
     is the dollar you keep."

3. Christ says: "You cannot serve two masters,
     God and Mammom."

4. "'You cannot.' And all our education consists 
     in trying to find out how we can,"
     says Robert Louis Stevenson.

5. "The poor are the true children of the Church",
     says Bossuet.

6. "Modern society
     has made the bank account
     the standard of values",
     says Charles Peguy.


[Contents]
Usurers Are Not Gentlemen

1. The Prophets of Israel
     and the Fathers of the Church
     forbade lending money at interest.

2. Lending at interest
     was called usury
     by the Prophets of Israel
     and the Fathers of the Church.

3. Usurers were not considered
     to be gentlemen
     when people used to listen
     to the Prophets of Israel
     and the Fathers of the Church.

4. When people used to listen
     to the Prophets of Israel
     and the Fathers of the Church
     they could not see anything gentle
     in trying to live
     on the sweat of somebody else's brow
     by lending money at interest.


[Contents]
Wealth-Producing Maniacs

1. When John Calvin
     legalized money-lending at interest,
     he made the bank account
     the standard of values.

2. When the bank account
     became the standard of values,
     people ceased to produce for use
     and began to produce for profits.

3. When people began to produce for profits
     they became
     wealth-producing maniacs.

4. When people became wealth-producing maniacs
     they produced too much wealth.

5. When people found out
     that they had produced too much wealth
     they went on an orgy
     of wealth-destruction
     and destroyed
     ten million lives besides.


[Contents]
Mortgaged

1. Because John Calvin
     legalized money-lending at interest,
     the State has legalized
     money-lending at interest.

2. Because the State has legalized
     money-lending at interest,
     home owners
     have mortgaged their farms;
     institutions
     have mortgaged their buildings;
     congregations
     have mortgaged their churches;
     cities, counties, States
     and Federal Government
     have mortgaged their budgets.

3. So people find themselves
     in all kinds of financial difficulties
     because the State
     has legalized money-lending at interest
     in spite of the teachings
     of the Prophets of Israel
     and the Fathers of the Church.


[Contents]
The Fallacy Of Saving

1. When people save money
     that means money is invested.

2. Money invested
     increases production.

3. Increased production
     brings a surplus in production.

4. A surplus in production
     brings unemployment.

5. Unemployment
     brings a slump in business.

6. A slump in business
     brings more unemployment.

7. More unemployment
     brings a depression.

8. A depression
     brings more depression.
 
9. More depression
     brings red agitation.

10. Red agitation
     brings red revolution.


[Contents]
Avoiding Inflation

1. Some say
     that inflation is desirable.
  
2. Some say
     that inflation is deplorable.

3. Some say
     that inflation is deplorable
     but inevitable.

4. The way to avoid inflation
     is to lighten the burden
     of money-borrowers
     without robbing the money-lenders.

5. And the way
     to lighten the burden
     of money-borrowers
     with robbing the money-lenders
     is to pass two laws:
     one law making immediately illegal
     all interest on money lent
     and another law
     obligating the money-borrowers
     to pay one per cent of the debt
     every year
     during a period
     of a hundred years.


[Contents]
The Wisdom Of Giving

1. To give to the poor
     is to enable the poor to buy.

2. To enable the poor to buy
     is to improve the market.

3. To improve the market
     is to help business.

4. To help business
     is to reduce unemployment.

5. To reduce unnemployment
     is to reduce crime.

6. To reduce crime
     is to reduce taxation.

7. So why not give to the poor
     for business' sake,
     for humanity's sake,
     for God's sake?


[Contents]
Share Your Wealth

1. God wants us 
     to be our brother's keeper.

2. To feed the hungry,
     to clothe the naked,
     to shelter the homeless,
     to instruct the ignorant,
     at a personal sacrifice,
     is what God
     wants us to do.

3. What we give to the poor
     for Christ's sake
     is what we carry with us
     when we die.

4. As Jean-Jacques Rousseau say:
     "When man dies
     he carries
     in his clutches hands
     only that which
     he has given away."


[Contents]
Why Not Be A Beggar?

1. People who are in need
     and are not afraid to beg
     give to people not in need
     the occasion to do good
     for goodness' sake.

2. Modern society
     calls the beggar
     bum and panhandler
     and gives him the bum's rush.

3. The Greeks used to say
     that people in need
     are the ambassadors of the gods.

4. We read in the Gospel:
     "As long as you did it
     to one of the least
     of My brothers
     you did it to Me."

5. While modern society
     calls the beggars
     bums and panhandlers,
     they are in fact
     the Ambassadors of God.

6. To be God's Ambassador
     is something 
     to be proud of.


[Contents]
Municipal Lodgings

1. People who are in need
     are not invited
     to spend the night
     in homes of the rich.

2. There are guest rooms
     in the homes of the rich
     but they are not 
     for those who need them.

3. They are not
     for those who need them
     because those who need them
     are no longer considered
     as the Ambassadors of God.

4. So the duty of hospitality
     is no longer considered
     as a personal duty.

5. So people without a home
     are sent to the city
     where hospitality is given
     at the taxpayer's expense.


[Contents]
Bishop-Shy

1. The Holy Father
     appoints a man
     named a Bishop
     to a seat - a cathedra.

2. From that seat - cathedra
     the Bishop
     teaches the truth
     to all men
     so the truth
     may make them free.

3. But some people
     are Bishop-shy.

4. They are Bishop-shy
     because they are
     hungry, shivering, or sleepy.

5. They must be
     fed, clothed, and sheltered
     before they will consent
     to come to listen
     to Christ's Bishop.

6. To feed, clothe, and shelter them
     at a personal sacrifice
     is to participate
     in the Bishop's apostolate.


[Contents]
Passing The Buck

1. In the first centuries of Christianity
     the poor were fed, clothed, and sheltered
     at a personal sacrifice
     and the Pagans
     said about the Christians:
     "See how they love each other."

2. Today the poor are fed, clothed, and sheltered
     by the politicians
     at the expense
     of the taxpayers.

3. And because the poor
     are no longer
     fed, clothed, and sheltered
     at a personal sacrifice
     but at the expense
     of taxpayers
     Pagans say about Christians:
     "See how they pass the buck."


[Contents]
Hospices

1. We read in the Catholic Encyclopedia
     that during the early ages
     of Christianity
     the Hospices
     or Houses of Hospitality
     was a shelter
     for the sick, the poor,
     the orphan, the old, the traveller,
     and the needy of every kind.

2. Originally the Hospices
     of Houses of Hospitality
     were under the supervision
     of the Bishops
     who designated priests
     to administer
     the spiritual
     and temporal affairs
     of these charitable institutions.


[Contents]
Houses Of Hospitality

1. We need Houses of Hospitality
     to give to the rich
     the opportunity
     to serve the poor.

2. We need Houses of Hospitality
     to bring the scholars
     to the workers
     or the workers
     to the scholars.

3. We need Houses of Hospitality
     to bring back to institutions
     the technique to institutions.

4. We need Houses of Hospitality
     to show
     what idealism looks like
     when it is practised.


[Contents]
Servants Of The Poor

1. In seventeenth-century France
     there was a priest
     by the name of Vincent.

2. Father Vincent realized
     that the country
     was going to the dogs.

3. When something goes wrong
     they say in France:
     "Cherchez la femme-
     look for the woman."

4. Looking for the woman
     Father Vincent found out
     that many woman
     were trying to be
     the mistresses of the rich.

5. St. Vincent of Paul
     gathered several women
     and told them:
     "If you want
     to put the country on its feet
     refuse to be
     the mistress of the rich
     and choose to be
     the servants of the poor."


[Contents]
Scholars And Workers

1. By living with the workers
     in Houses of Hospitality
     scholars will be able
     to convey to the workers
     why things are
     what they are,
     how things would be
     if they were as they should be,
     and how a path can be made
     from things as they are
     to things as they should be.

2. By living with the workers
     in Houses of Hospitality
     scholars will be able
     to win the workers' sympathy,
     and therefore
     keep the workers
     from being influenced
     by selfish demagogues.

3. By living with the workers
     in Houses of Hospitality
     ascholars will be able
     to become dynamic
     and therefore
     be the driving force
     of a new social order.


[Contents]
Social Workers and Workers

1. The training of social workers
     enables them to help people
     to adjust themselves
     to the existing environment.

2. The training of social workers
     does not enable them 
     to help people
     to change the environment.

3. Social workers
     must become social minded
     before they can be
     critics of the existing environment
     and free creative agents
     of the new environment.

4. In the Houses of Hospitality
     social workers can aquire
     the art of human contacts
     and the social-mindedness
     or understanding of social forces
     which will make them
     critical of the existing environment
     and free creative agents
     of a new environment.


[Contents]
Rich And Poor

1. Afraid of the poor
     who don't like to get poorer,
     the rich who like to get richer
     turn to the State for protection.

2. But the State is not only
     the State of the rich
     it is also the State of the poor
     who don't like to get poorer.

3. So the State sometimes chooses to help
     the many poor
     who don't like to get poorer,
     at the expense of the few rich
     who like to get richer.

4. Dissatisfied with the State,
     the rich who like to get richer
     turn to the Church
     to save them from the poor
     who don't like to get poorer.

5. But the Church can only tell the rich
     who like to get richer:
     "Woe to you rich
     who like to get richer,
     if you don't help the poor
     who don't like to get poorer."


[Contents]
Not Communists

1. There is nothing wrong
     with Communism,
     but there is something wrong
     with Communists.

2. The wrong thing with Communists is
     that they are not Communists,
     they are Socialists.

3. There is no Communism
     in Soviet Russia,
     there is State Socialism
     in Soviet Russia.

4. The State has not withered away,
     the wage system still prevails,
     and they are selling
     7% government bonds
     in Soviet Russia.

5. By selling 7% government bonds
     they are creating
     a new parasitic class
     in Socialist Russia.


[Contents]
Taking Over

1. The aim of the Communists
     is to take over the control
     of the means of production
     and distribution.

2. The means of production
     and distribution
     are now in the hands
     of Capitalists.

3. The class war is a war
     between Communists
     and Capitalists
     over control
     of the means of production
     and distribution.

4. Patriots believe
     that the way to bring about
     a classless society
     is a class war
     between the Capitalist State
     and the working class.


[Contents]
What Is Communism?

1. Communists believe
     in capturing the State
     so as to be able
     to use it as a club
     to prevent anybody
     from becoming a Capitalist.

2. The Communist manifesto
     defines Communism
     as "a state of society"
     where each one works 
     according to his ability
     and gets
     according to his needs."

3. Using the power of the State
     will enable Communists
     to prevent anybody
     from becoming
     a successful Capitalist
     but it will not
     make anybody
     Communist at heart.

4. To be a Communist
     according to the definition
     of the Communist Manifesto
     is to be willing to give one's labor
     for the benefit
     of a Communist Community.


[Contents]
I Agree

1. I agree with seven Bishops,
     three of whom are Archbishops,
     that the Communist criticism
     of the rugged individualism
     of bourgeois capitalism
     is a sound criticism.

2. I agree with seven Bishops,
     three of whom are Archbishops,
     that the main social aim
     of the communist Party
     is a sound social aim.

3. I agree with seven Bishops,
     three whom are Archbishops,
     that the Communists are not sound
     when they advocate class struggle
     and proletarian dictatorship
     as the best practical means
     to realize their sound social aim.


[Contents]
To Be A Marxist

1. Before he died
     Karl Marx told one of his friends:
     "I have lived long enough
     to be able to say
     that i am not a Marxist."

2. To be a Marxist,
     according to the logic of Das Kapital,
     is to maintain
     that the best thing to do
     is to wait patiently
     till Capitalism
     has fulfilled its historic mission.

3. To be a Marxist
     according to the logic of Das Kapital,
     is to step back,
     take and academic view of things,
     and watch the self-satisfied Capitalists
     dig their own graves.

4. To be a Marxist,
     according to the logic of Das Kapital,
     is to let economic evolution
     do its work
     without ever attempting
     to give it a push.


[Contents]
Karl Marx Soon Realized

1. Karl Marx soon realized
     that his own analysis
     of bourgeois society
     could not be the basis
     of a dynamic revolutionary movement.

2. karl Marx soon realized
     that a forceful Communist Manifesto
     was the necessary foundation
     of a dynamic Communist Movement.

3. Karl Marx soon realized,
     as Lenin realized,
     that there is no revolution
     without revolutionary action;
     that there is no revolutionary action
     without a revolutionary movement;
     that there is no revolutionary movement
     without a vanguard of revolution
     and that there is no vanguard of revolution
     without a theory of revolution.


[Contents]
The Communist Manifesto

1. Having realized
     that a Communist Manifesto
     was the basis of a Communist Movement,
     Karl Marx decided
     to write a Communist Manifesto.

2. To write the Communist Manifesto
     Karl marx did not use
     his own analysis of Capitalism.

3. He took the criticism
     of the bourgeois society of his time
     by Victor Considerant
     and made it the first part
     of the Communist Manifesto.

4. He took the definition of Communism
     by Proudhon
     and made it his own.

5. He tried to make himself believe
     that class struggle was the first step
     from a Capitalist society
     where man is inhuman to man
     to a Communist society
     where man in human to man.


[Contents]
Five Definitions

1.A Bourgeois
     is a fellow who tries to be somebody
     by trying to be
     like everybody,
     which makes him
     a nobody.

2. A Dictator
     is a fellow
     who does not hesitate
     to strike you over the head
     if you refuse to do
     what he waants you to do.

3. A Leader
     is a fellow
     who refuses to be crazy
     the way everybody else is crazy
     and tries to be crazy
     in his own crazy way.

4. A Bolshevist
     is a fellow
     who tries to get
     what the other fellow has
     and to regulate
     what you should have.

5. A Communitarian
     is a fellow
     who refuses to be
     what the other fellow is
     and tries to be
     what he wants him to be.


[Contents]
They And We

1. People say:
     "They don't do this,
     they don't do that,
     they ought to do this,
     this ought to do that."
   
2. Always "They"
     and never "I".

3.People should say:
     "They are crazy
     for doing this
     and not doing that
     but I don't need
     to be crazy
     the way they are crazy."

4. The Communitarian Revolution
     is basically
     a personal revolution.

5. It starts with I
     not with They.

6. One I plus one I
     makes two I
     and two I makes We.
     
7. "We" is a community
     while "they" is a crowd.


[Contents]
Communitarian Movement

1. The Nazis, the Fascists,
     and the Bolshevists
     are Totalitarians.

2. The Catholic Worker
     is Communitarian.

3. The principles of Communitarianism
     are expounded every month
     in the French magazine
     Esprit (The Spirit).

4. Emmanuel Mounier,
     editor of the magizine,
     has a book entitled,
     "La revolution personnaliste
     et communitaire."

5. Raymond de Becker
     is the leader in Belgium
     of the Communitarian Movement
    
6. Dr. Kagawa
     the Japanese co-operator
     is truly imbued
     with the communitarian spirit.


[Contents]
The C.P. And C.M.

1. The Communist Party
     credits bourgeois capitalism
     with an historic mission.

2. The Communitarian Movement
     condemns it
     on general principles.

3. The Communist Party
     throws the monkey-wrench
     of class struggle
     into the economic machinery
     and by doing so
     delays the fulfilling
     of the historic mission
     which it credits
     to capitalism.

4. The Communitarian Movement
     aims to create
     a new society
     within the shell of the old
     with the philosophy of the new
     which is not
     a new philosophy
     but a very old philosophy,
     a philosophy so old
     that it looks like new.

5. The Communist Party
     stands for proletarian dictatorship.

6. The Communitarian Movement
     stands for personalist leadership.


[Contents]
What Labor Needs

1. A Communist Community
     is a Community
     with a common unity.

2. A common belief
     is what makes the unity
     if a community.

3. Norman Thomas says
     that "Ramsay MacDonald
     has failed to give to Labor 
     a philosophy of labor".

4. What labor needs
     is not economic security.

5. What Labor needs
     is a philosophy of labor.


[Contents]
Three Ways To Make A Living

1. Mirabeau says:
     "There are only three ways
     to make a living:
     Stealing, begging, working."

2. Stealing is against the law of God
     and against the law of men.

3. Begging is against the law of men,
     but not against the law of God.

4. Working is neither against the law of God
     nor against the law of men.

5. But they say
     that there is no work to do.

6. There is plenty of work to do,
     but no wages.
 
7. But people do not need
     to work for wages.

8. They can offer their services
     as a gift.


[Contents]
Capital And Labor

1. "Capital", says Karl Marx,
     "is accumulated labor,
     not for the benefit of the laborers,
     but for the benefit of the accumulators."

2. And Capitalists succeed
     in accumulating labor
     by treating labor
     not as a gift,
     but as a commodity,
     buying it as any other commodity
     at the lowest possible price.

3. And organized labor
     plays into the hands
     of the capitalists
     or accumulators of labor
     by treating their own labor
     not as a gift,
     but as a commodity,
     selling it as any other commodity
     at the highest possible price.


[Contents]
Selling their Labor

1. And when the capitalists
     or accumulators of labor
     have accumulated so much
     of the laborer's labor
     that they no longer
     find it profitable
     to buy the labor's labor
     then the laborers
     can no longer
     sell their labor
     to the capitalists
     or accumulators of labor.

2. And when the laborers
     can no longer
     sell their labor
     to the capitalists
     or accumulators of labor,
     they can no longer buy
     the products of their labor.

3. And that is 
     what the laborers get
     for selling their labor
     to the capitalists
     or accumulators of labor.


[Contents]
What Makes Man Human

1. To give and not to take
   that is what makes man human.
2. To serve and not to rule
   that is what makes man human.
3. To help and not to crush
   that is what makes man human.
4. To nourish and not to devour
   that is what makes man human.
5. And if need be
   to die and not to live
   that is what makes man human.
6. Ideals and not deals
   that is what makes man human.
7. Creed and not greed
   that is what makes man human.


[Contents]
Better Or Better Off

1. The world would be better off,
     if people tried
     to become better.

2. And people would
     become better
     if they stopped trying
     to be better off.

3. For when everybody tries
     to become better off,
     nobody is better off.

4. But when everybody tries
     to become better,
     everybody is better off.

5. Everybody would be rich
     if nobody tried
     to be richer.

6. And nobody would be poor
     if everybody tried
     to be the poorest.

7. And everybody woiuld be
     what he ought to be
     if everybody tried to be
     what he wants 
     the other fellow to be.


[Contents]
Big Shots And Little Shots

1. When the big shots
     become bigger shots
     then the little shots
     become littler shots.

2. And when the little shots
     become littler shots
     because the big shots
     become bigger shots
     then the little shots
     get mad at the big shots.

3. And when the little shots
     get mad at the big shots
     because the big shots
     by becomming bigger shots
     make the little shots
     littler shots
     they shoot the big shots
     full of little shots.

4. But by shooting the big shots
     full of little shots
     the little shots
     do not become big shots,
     they make everything all shot.


[Contents]
Christianity, Capitalism, Communism

1. Christianity has nothing to do
     with either modern Capitalism
     or modern Communism,
     for Christianity
     has a Capitalism of its own,
     and a Communism of its own.

2. Modern Capitalism
     is based on property
     without responsibility,
     while Christian Capitalism
     is based on property
     with responsibility.

3. Modern Communism
     is based on poverty through force,
     while Christian Communism
     is based on poverty through choice.

4. For a Christian,
     voluntary poverty is the ideal
     as exemplified by Saint Francis of Assisi,
     while privte property
     is not an absolute right,
     but a trust,
     which must be administered
     for the benefit of God's children.


[Contents]
Looking At Property

Fr. Henry Carr, Superior of the Basilians, says:
1. Socialists and Communists
     battle against
     the unequal conditions
     of the poor.

2. Presumably they would be satisfied
     if all were on a level.
 
3. Do you not see
     that this does not touch
     the question that is vital,
     namely, whether or not the people,
     no matter how much
     or how little they possess,
     regard it and use it
     in the way they should?

4. The right way
     is to regard it
     as something entrusted to us
     to use for the benefit
     of ourselves and others.

5. The wrong way
     is to look on it as something we own
     and can use as we desire
     without any duty to others.

6. Good or bad conditions
     will follow
     good or bad use
     of property.


[Contents]
What Saint Francis Desired

According to Johannes Jorgensen, a Danish convert, living in Assisi:
1. Saint Francis desired
      that men should give up
      superfluous possessions.
2. Saint Francis desired
      that men should work
      with their hands.
3. Saint Francis desired
      that men should offer their services
      as a gift.
4. Saint Francis desired
      that men should ask other people for help
      when work failed them.
5. Saint Francis desired
      that men should live
      as free as birds.
6. Saint Francis desired
      that men should go through life
      giving thanks to God
      for His gifts.


[Contents]
On The Level

1. Owen Young says:
     "We will never have prosperity
     as long as
     there is no balance
     between industry
     and agriculture."

2. The farmer sells
     in an open market
     and is forced to buy
     in a restricted market.

3. When the farmer gets
     a pair of overalls
     for a bushel of wheat
     the wheat and the overalls
     are on the level.

4. When the farmer
     has to give
     two bushels of wheat
     for a pair of overalls
     the wheat and the overalls
     are not on the level.

5. Wheat and overalls
     must be on the level.


[Contents]
Industrialization

1. Lenin said:
     "The world cannot be
     half industrial
     and half agricultural."

2. England, Germany,
     Japan, and America
     have become
     industrialized.

3. Soviet Russia
     is trying to keep up
     with England, Germany,
     Japan, and America.

4. When all the world
     becomes industrialized
     every country
     will be looking 
     for foreign markets.

5. But when every country
     becomes industrialized
     you will not have
     foreign markets.


[Contents]
Mechanized Labor

1. Gandhi says:
     "Industrialism is evil."

2. Industrialism is evil
     because it brings idleness
     both to the capitalist class
     and the working class.

3. Idleness does no good
     either to the capitalist class
     or the working class.

4. Creative labor
     is what keeps people
     out of mischief.

5. Creative labor
     is craft labor.

6. Mechanized labor
     is not creative labor.


[Contents]
No Pleasure In Work

1.Carlyle says:
     "He who has found his work
     let him look
     for no other blessedness."

2. But workmen
     cannot find hapiness
     in mechanized work.

3. As Charles Devas says,
     "The great majority
     having to perform
     some mechanized operation
     which requires little thought
     and allows no originality
     and which
     concerns an object
     in the transformation of which
     whether previous or subsequent
     they have no part,
     cannot take pleasure
     in their work."


[Contents]
Industrialism And Art

1. Eric Gill says:
     the notion of work
     has been separated
     from the notion of art.

2. The notion of the useful
     has been separated
     from the notion of the beautiful.

3. The artist,
     that is to say,
     the responsible workman,
     has been separated
     from all other workmen.

4. The factory hand
     has no responsibility
     for what he produces.

5. He has been reduced
     to a sub-human condition
     of intellectual irresponsibility.

6. Industrialism
     has released the artist
     from the necessity
     of making anything useful.

7. Industrialism
     has also released the workman
     from making anything amusing.


[Contents]
From A Chinese

1. A Chinese says:
     I thought I had become westernized
     but now I am becoming repatriated.

2. The material progress of America
     has dazzled me.

3. I wished while there
     to transplant what I saw
     to China.

4. But now that I am home again
     I see that our two civilizations
     have irreconcilable differences.

5. Yours is a machine civilization;
     ours is a handicraft civilization.

6. Your people
     work in factories;
     our people
     work in shops.

7. Your people
     produce quality things
     that are alike.

8. Our people
     produce quality things
     that are different.


[Contents]
Regard For The Soil

1. Andrew Nelson Lytle says:
     The escape from industrialism
     is not in socialism
     or in sovietism.

2. The answer lies
     in a return to a society
     where agriculture is practised
     by most of the people.

3. It is in fact impossible
     for any culture
     to be sound and healthy
     without a proper regard
     for the soil,
     no matter
     how many urban dwellers
     think that their food
     comes from groceries
     and delicatessens
     or their milk from tin cans.

4. This ignorance
     does not release them
     from a final dependence
     upon the farm.


[Contents]
Up To Catholics

1. Ralph Adams Cram says:
     What I propose
     is that Catholics
     should take up
     this back-to-the-land problem
     and put it into operation.

2. Why Catholics?
     Because they realize
     more clearly than any others
     the shortcomings
     of the old capitalist
     industrial system.

3. They, better than others,
     see the threat
     that impends.

4. They alone understand
     that while the family
     is the primary social unit,
     the community comes next.

5.  And there is 
     no sound
     and righteous
     and enduring community
     where all its members
     are not substantially 
     of one mind.


[Contents]
What The Unemployed Need

1. The unemployed
     need free rent;
     they can have that
     on a Farming Commune.

2. The unemployed
     need free food;
     they can raise that
     on a Farming Commune.

3. The unemployed
     need free fuel;
     they can cut that
     on a Farming Commune.

4. The unemployed
     need to acquire skill;
     they can do that
     on a Farming Commune.

5. The unemployed
     need to improve
     their minds;
     they can do that 
     on a Farming Commune.

6. The unemployed
     need spiritual guidance;
     they can have that
     on a Farming Commune.


[Contents]
Professors Of A Farming Commune

1. Professors of a Farming Commune
     do not look for endowments;
     they look for manual labor.

2. Professors of a Farming Commune
     do not tell their students
     what to do;
     they show them
     how to do it.

3. Professors of a Farming Commune
     do not enable their students
     to master subjects;
     they enable them
     to master situations.

4. Professors of a Farming Commune
     do not teach their students
     how to make
     profitable deals;
     they teach them
     how to realize
     worthy ideals.


[Contents]
Laborers Of A Farming Commune

1. Laborers of a Farming Commune
     do not work for wages;
     they leave that
     to the Farming Commune.

2. Laborers of a Farming Commune
     do not look
     for a bank account;
     they leave that
     to the Farming Commune.
  
3. Laborers of a Farming Commune
     do not look for
     an insurance policy;
     they leave that 
     to the Farming Commune.

4. Laborers of a Farming Commune
     do not look for
     an old-age pension;
     they leave that
     to the Farming Commune.

5. Laborers of a Farming Commune
     do not look for
     economic security;
     they leave that
     to the Farming Commune.


[Contents]
What The Communists Say They Believe

1. Communists believe
     that the capitalist system
     has reached the point
     where it no longer works.

2. Communists believe
     that when the workers
     come to the realization
     of the downfall of capitalism
     they will no longer tolerate it.

3. Communists believe
     that the capitalist class
     will resort to all means
     that may be in their power
     to maintain their existence.

4. Communists believe
     that the Communist Party
     knows how to assure
     production and distribution
     in an orderly manner
     according to a pre-designed plan.


[Contents]
What The Fascists Say They Believe

1. The Fascists believe
     in a national economy
     for the protection
     of national and private interests.

2. Fascists believe
     in the regulation of industries
     so as to assure
     a wage for the worker
     and a dividend for the investor.

3. Fascists believe
     in class collaboration
     under State supervision.

4. Fascists believe
     in the co-operation
     of employers' unions
     and workers' unions.


[Contents]
What The Socialists Say They Believe

1. Socialists believe
     in a gradual realization
     of a classless society.

2. Socialists believe
     in the social ownership
     of natural resources
     and the means of production
     and distribution.

3. Socialists believe
     in a transition period
     under democratic management
     between two economic systems,
     the systems of production for use
     and the system of production for profits.

4. Socialists believe
     in freedom of the press,
     freedom of assemblage,
     freedom of worship.


[Contents]
What The Democrats Say They Believe

1. Democrats believe
     in universal suffrage,
     universal education,
     freedom of opportunity.

2. Democrats believe
     in the right of the rich
     to become richer
     and of the poor
     to try to become rich.

3. Democrats believe
     in labor unions
     and financial corporations.

4. Democrats believe
     in the law of supply and demand.


[Contents]
What the Catholic Worker Believes

1. The Catholic Worker believes
    in the gentle personalism
    of traditional Catholicism.
2. The Catholic Worker believes
    in the personal obligation
    of looking after
    the needs of our brother.
3. The Catholic Worker believes
    in the daily practice 
    of the Works of Mercy.
4. The Catholic Worker believes 
    in Houses of Hospitality 
    for the immediate relief 
    of those who are in need.
5. The Catholic Worker believes 
    in the establishment 
    of Farming Communes 
    where each one works 
    according to his ability 
    and gets according to his need.
6. The Catholic Worker believes 
    in creating a new society 
    within the shell of the old 
    with the philosophy of the new, 
    which is not a new philosophy 
    but a very old philosophy, 
    a philosophy so old 
    that it looks like new.


[Contents]
Right Or Wrong

1. Some people say:
     "My country
     is always right."

2. Some people say:
     "My country
     is always wrong."

3. Some people say:
     "My country
     is sometimes right
     and sometimes wrong,
     but my country
     right or wrong."

4. To stick up for one's country 
     when one's country is wrong
     does not make 
     the country right.

5. To stick up for the right
     even when the world is wrong
     is the only way we know
     to make everything right.


[Contents]
Protecting France

1. To protect French citizens
     living in Algeria
     the French took Algeria
     from the natives.

2. To protect Algeria
     the French took control
     for Tunisia.

3. To protect Senegal
     the French took Dahomey,
     the Gabon, and the Congo.

4. To protect the isle of Reunion
     the French took Madagascar.

5. They took Madagascar
     for another reason.

6. The other reason was
     that the English
     wished to take it.

7. When the English
     take something
     the French say:
     "The English do that
     because they are grabbers."

8. When the French take something,
     the French say:
     "We do that
     because we are
     good patriots."


[Contents]
Protecting England

1. To protect the British Isles
     the English took the sea.

2. To protect the sea
     the English took Gibraltar,
     Canada, and India.

3. To protect India
     the English went to Egypt.

4. To protect Egypt
     the English took the Sudan.

5. To protect the Sudan
     the English forced the French
     to leave Fashoda.

6. To protect the Cape and Natal
     the English took the Transvaal.

7. To protect South Africa
     the English prevented the French
     from giving Agadir
     to Germany.

8. So the English
     are just as good
     or just as bad 
     as the French.


[Contents]
Civilizing Ethiopia

1. The French believe
     that trade follows the flag.

2. So do the English,
     so do the Germans,
     so do the Japanese,
     so do the Italians.

3. Italy is in Ethopia
     for the same reason
     that the French
     are in Algeria,
     the English in India,
     the Japanese in Manchuria.

4. The Italians say
     thatthe Ethopians
     are not civilized.

5. The last war proves
     that Europeans
     are no more civilized
     than the Africans.

6. So Europeans
     ought to find a way
     to become civilized
     before thinking
     about the best way
     to civilize Africans.


[Contents]
Moral Disarmament

1. Theodore Roosevelt used to say:
     "If you want peace
     prepare for war."

2. So everybody prepared for war
     but war preparations
     did not bring peace;
     they brought war.

3. Since war preparations
     brought war,
     why not quit
     preparing for war.

4. If nations preparing for peace
     instead of preparing for war,
     they might have peace.

5. Aristide Briand used to say:
     "The best kind of disarmament
     is the disarmament of the heart."
 
6. The disarmament of Germany
     by the Allies
     was not the product
     of a change of heart
     on the part of the Allies
     toward Germany.


[Contents]


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